Drugs that increase the risk of community-acquired pneumonia: a narrative review.
Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2018 Oct ;17(10):991-1003. Epub 2018 Sep 17. PMID: 30196729
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), a major cause of morbidity and mortality, is the leading infectious cause of death in the developed world. Population-based studies and systematic reviews have identified a large number of risk factors for the development of pneumonia in adults. In addition to age, lifestyle habits, and comorbidities, some forms of pharmacotherapy may also increase the risk for CAP. Areas covered: MEDLINE, CENTRAL, and Web of Science were used in 2017 to search for case-control, cohort studies, as well as randomized controlled trials and meta-analysis that involved outpatient proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs), antipsychotics, oral antidiabetics, and CAP diagnosis in patients aged>18 years. Expert opinion: Our review confirmed that the use of ICSs, PPIs or antipsychotic drugs was independently associated with an increased risk for CAP. We also identified a positive association between specific oral antidiabetics and the development of pneumonia.