Effect of Proton Pump Inhibitors on Colorectal Cancer.
Int J Mol Sci. 2020 May 29 ;21(11). Epub 2020 May 29. PMID: 32485921
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are administered commonly to aged people; however, their effect on colorectal cancer (CRC) has still not been fully elucidated. Here, we examined the effect of PPIs and consequent alkalization on CRC cells. PPI administration alkalized the fecal pH and increased serum gastrin concentration. PPI and pH8 treatment (alkalization) of CMT93 mouse colon cancer cells inhibited cell growth and invasion, increased oxidative stress and apoptosis, and decreased mitochondrial volume and protein levels of cyclin D1 and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) 1/2. In contrast, gastrin treatment enhanced growth and invasion, decreased oxidative stress and apoptosis, and increased mitochondrial volume and cyclin D1 and pERK1/2 levels. Concurrent treatment with a PPI, pH8, and gastrin increased aldehyde dehydrogenase activity and also enhanced liver metastasis in the BALB/c strain of mice. PPI administration was associated withenterotoxin (CPE) in CRC lesions. CPE treatment activated yes-associated protein (YAP) signals to enhance proliferation and stemness. The orthotopic colon cancer model of CMT93 cells with long-term PPI administration showed enhanced tumor growth and liver metastasis due to gastrin and YAP activation, as indicated by gastrin receptor knockdown and treatment with a YAP inhibitor. These findings suggest that PPI promotes CRC growth and metastasis by increasing gastrin concentration and YAP activation, resulting in gut flora alteration and fecal alkalization. These findings suggest that PPI use in colorectal cancer patients might create a risk of cancer promotion.