Anti-Proliferative Effect of an Aqueous Extract of Prunella vulgaris in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013 ;2013:936463. Epub 2013 Sep 12. PMID: 24159354
Sun Mi Hwang
The abnormal proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in arterial walls is an important pathogenic factor of vascular disorders such as diabetic atherosclerosis. We have reported the anti-inflammatory effect of an aqueous extract from Prunella vulgaris (APV) in vascular endothelial cell. In the present study, APV exhibited inhibitory effects on high glucose-stimulated VSMC proliferation, migration, and invasion activities, inducing G1 cell cycle arrest with downregulation of cyclins and CDKs and upregulation of the CKIs, p21(waf1/cip1) and p27(kip1). Furthermore, APV dose dependently suppressed the high glucose-induced matrix metalloproteinase activity. High glucose-induced phosphorylation of ERK, p38 MAPK, was decreased by the pretreatment of APV. NF-κ B activation by high glucose was attenuated by APV, as an antioxidant. APV attenuated the high glucose-induced decrease of nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) translocation and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression. Intracellular cGMP level was also increased by APV treatment. These results demonstrate that APV may inhibit VSMC proliferation via downregulating ROS/NF- κ B /ERK/p38 MAPK pathways. In addition, APV has a beneficial effect by the interaction of Nrf2-mediated NO/cGMP with HO-1, suggesting that Prunella vulgaris may be useful in preventing diabetic atherosclerosis.