Modulation of the Tumor Metastatic Microenvironment and Multiple Signal Pathways by Prunella vulgaris in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Am J Chin Med. 2016 ;44(4):835-49. Epub 2016 May 24. PMID: 27222069
Prunella vulgaris (PV) is a traditional Chinese medicine that has been used clinically for centuries in Asian countries to treat herpetic keratitis. In previous studies, PV was shown to suppress TPA-induced activation of MMP-9 and inhibit cell invasion and migration in hepatoma cell lines. However, the detailed molecular mechanism underlying these effects is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms underlying PV-mediated inhibition of 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced cell invasion and inhibition of secreted and cytosolic MMP-9 production in human hepatoma cells (Huh-7 and HA22T). PV suppressed VEGF and MMP-9 transcription by inhibiting activator protein (AP)-1 and nuclear factor-[Formula: see text]B (NF-[Formula: see text]B) activity. PV suppressed TPA-induced AP-1 activity by inhibiting phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK), downregulating p38 signaling pathways, and suppressing TPA-induced inhibition of NF-[Formula: see text]B nuclear translocation through I[Formula: see text]B. PV suppressed TPA-induced activation of ERK/phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/Akt upstream of NF-[Formula: see text]B and AP-1. These data suggest that PV modifies the metastatic microenvironment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by inhibiting multiple signal transduction pathways. PV thus may have the therapeutic potential to inhibit the migration and invasion of HCC and act as potential agent for systemic therapies.