L. Seed Extract Attenuates Methylglyoxal-Induced Insulin Resistance by Inhibition of Advanced Glycation End Product Formation.
Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2019 ;2019:4310319. Epub 2019 Dec 26. PMID: 31976027
Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the body has been implicated in the pathogenesis of metabolic conditions, such as diabetes mellitus. Methylglyoxal (MGO), a major precursor of AGEs, has been reported to induce insulin resistance in bothandstudies.seeds (PCS) have been used as a traditional medicine for several diseases, but their potential application in treating insulin resistance has not yet been evaluated. This study is aimed at investigating whether PCS extract could attenuate insulin resistance induced by MGO. Male C57BL/6N mice (6 weeks old) were administered 1% MGO in their drinking water for 18 weeks, and the PCS extract (200 or 500 mg/kg) was orally administered daily from the first day of the MGO administration. We observed that both 200 and 500 mg/kg PCS extract treatment significantly improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity and markedly restored p-Akt and p-IRS1/2 expression in the livers of the MGO-administered mice. Additionally, the PCS extract significantly increased the phosphorylation of Akt and IRS-1/2 and glucose uptake in MGO-treated HepG2 cells. Further studies showed that the PCS extract inhibited MGO-induced AGE formation in the HepG2 cells and in the sera of MGO-administered mice. PCS extract also increased the expression of glyoxalase 1 (GLO1) in the liver tissue of MGO-administered mice. The PCS extract significantly decreased the phosphorylation of ERK, p38, and NF-B and suppressed the mRNA expression of proinflammatory molecules including TNF-and IL-1and iNOS in MGO-administered mice. Additionally, we demonstrated that the PCS extract attenuated oxidative stress, as evidenced by the reduced ROS production in the MGO-treated cells and the enhanced expression of antioxidant enzymes in the liver of MGO-administered mice. Thus, PCS extract ameliorated the MGO-induced insulin resistance in HepG2 cells and in mice by reducing oxidative stress via the inhibition of AGE formation. These findings suggest the potential of PCS extract as a candidate for the prevention and treatment of insulin resistance.