HO-1 Signaling Activation by Pterostilbene Treatment Attenuates Mitochondrial Oxidative Damage Induced by Cerebral Ischemia Reperfusion Injury.
Mol Neurobiol. 2015 May 16. Epub 2015 May 16. PMID: 25983033
Ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury (IRI) is harmful to the cerebral system and causes mitochondrial oxidative stress. The antioxidant response element (ARE)-mediated antioxidant pathway plays an important role in maintaining the redox status of the brain. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), combined with potent AREs in the promoter of HO-1, is a highly effective therapeutic target for protection against cerebral IRI. Pterostilbene (PTE), a natural dimethylated analog of resveratrol from blueberries, is a strong natural antioxidant. PTE has been shown to be beneficial for some nervous system diseases and may regulate HO-1 signaling. This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of PTE on cerebral IRI and to elucidate potential mechanisms underlying those effects. Mouse brains and cultured HT22 neuron cells were subjected to IRI. Prior to this procedure, the brains or cells were exposed to PTE in the absence or presence of the HO-1 inhibitor ZnPP or HO-1 small interfering RNA (siRNA). PTE conferred a cerebral protective effect, as shown by increased neurological scores, viable neurons and decreased brain edema as well as a decreased ion content and apoptotic ratio in vivo. PTE also increased the cell viability and decreased the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage and apoptotic ratio in vitro. ZnPP and HO-1 siRNA both blocked PTE-mediated cerebral protection by inhibiting HO-1 signaling and further inhibited two HO-1 signaling-related antioxidant molecules: NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), which are induced by PTE. PTE also promoted a well-preserved mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), mitochondria complex I activity, and mitochondria complex IV activity, increased the mitochondrial cytochrome c level, and decreased the cytosolic cytochrome c level. However, this PTE-elevated mitochondrial function was reversed by ZnPP or HO-1 siRNA treatment. In summary, our results demonstrate that PTE treatment attenuates cerebral IRI by reducing IR-induced mitochondrial oxidative damage through the activation of HO-1 signaling.