Punicalagin Inhibited Inflammation and Migration of Fibroblast-Like Synoviocytes Through NF-κB Pathway in the Experimental Study of Rheumatoid Arthritis.
J Inflamm Res. 2021 ;14:1901-1913. Epub 2021 May 12. PMID: 34012288
Background: The aggressive phenotype of fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) is essential in the synovitis and bone destruction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Punicalagin is a natural polyphenol extracted in pomegranate juice, which possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor properties suggesting it may be a potent drug for RA therapy. However, there is paucity of information on its effect in RA.
Objective: To investigate the effects of punicalagin on synovial inflammation and bone destruction in RA.
Methods: FLSs were isolated from synovial tissue of RA patients. The mRNA levels were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR. Western blot was used for protein level measurements. The secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and metalloproteinases (MMPs) was detected by ELISA assays. Edu staining assays were carried out to investigate the proliferation of FLSs. Cell migration was assessed by Boyden chambers, wound scratch assays and F-actin staining in vitro. The intracellular translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) was investigated using immunofluorescence. The effects of punicalagin in vivo were measured by using collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mice.
Results: Punicalagin treatments significantly reduced the TNF-α induced expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-17A) and MMPs (MMP-1 and MMP-13) of RA FLSs. Punicalagin also suppressed the proliferation and migration of RA FLSs. Moreover, punicalagin (50mg/kg/d) alleviated arthritis severity and bone destruction, and decreased serum IL-6 and TNF-α in CIA mice. Further mechanism studies indicated that punicalagin blocked NF-κB activation via suppressing phosphorylation of IKK and IkBα, and preventing the translocation of 65.
Conclusion: Our findings suggested that punicalagin might be one of natural therapeutic compounds for relieving RA progress via suppressing FLSs inflammation and migration through modulating NF-κB pathways.