Protective mechanisms of purified polyphenols from pinecones of Pinus koraiensis on spleen tissues in tumor-bearing S180 mice in vivo.
Food Funct. 2017 Jan 25 ;8(1):151-166. PMID: 27924972
The previous study evaluated the antitumor activity and the underlying mechanism of the purified polyphenols from pinecones of Pinus koraiensis (PPP-40) using a tumor-bearing S180 mice model. This study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of PPP-40 on spleen tissues of S180 mice in vivo. Pretreatment with PPP-40 (150 mg per kg BW per D) could significantly inhibit tumor growth, enhance spleen index and prevent the decline of haematological parameters of S180 mice induced by the tumor microenvironment. Moreover, the treatment with PPP-40 was shown to significantly inhibit splenocyte apoptosis by TUNEL staining and flow cytometry, characterized by the inhibition of splenocyte cycle (G0/G1) arrest, increase in the percentages of splenic T lymphocytes (CD3+ T cells) and T cell subsets (CD3+CD4+ and CD3+CD8+ T cells), as well as the production of T cell-related cytokines (IL-2, IL-12, and TNF-α) in splenocytes exposed to the tumor microenvironment. These effects were associated with a decrease in oxidative stress, as evidenced by the changes in the SOD, GSH-Px, GSH and MDA levels of liver and spleen tissues of S180 mice. Furthermore, the protective effect of PPP-40 on spleen tissues wasdeeply analyzed by detecting apoptosis-related proteins using immunohistochemistry staining. The results indicated that the protective multi-mechanisms of action also were associated with the inhibition of apoptosis through down-regulation protein expressions of Bax, caspase-9, caspase-8 caspase-3,Fas and up-regulation of the expressions of Bcl-2. These results suggested that PPP-40 is a natural antitumor agent and possesses strong immunomodulatory activities by protecting the spleen tissues of tumor-bearing S180 mice.