Improved effect of Pycnogenol on impaired spatial memory function in partial androgen deficiency rat model.
Phytother Res. 2009 Jun;23(6):840-3. PMID: 19142987
The improved effect of Pycnogenol on impaired spatial memory function was studied in orchidectomized rats. Endogenous testosterone levels were decreased by approximately one-half for 3 months after castration. In the radial arm maze, castration significantly impaired working and reference memory function without lowering motor function. Pycnogenol increased the NGF content in the hippocampus and cortex, and improved the spatial memory impairment. These observations confirmed that diagnostic accuracy can be improved by Pycnogenol in androgen-deficient rats. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.