Raspberry ketone may exert anti-adipogenic effects. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Heme oxygenase-1 mediates anti-adipogenesis effect of raspberry ketone in 3T3-L1 cells.
Phytomedicine. 2017 Jul 15 ;31:11-17. Epub 2017 May 22. PMID: 28606512
BACKGROUND: Obesity is caused by excessive accumulation of body fat and is closely related to complex metabolic diseases. Raspberry ketone (RK), a major aromatic compound in red raspberry, was recently reported to possess anti-obesity effects. However, its mechanisms are unclear.
AIM: Adipogenesis plays a critical role in obesity and, therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect and mechanisms of action of RK on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiated in medium containing insulin, dexamethasone, and 1-methyl-3-isobutylxanthine. Adipocyte lipid contents were determined using oil-red O staining while adipogenic transcription factor and lipogenic protein expressions were determined using western blotting.
RESULTS: RK (300-400µM) strongly inhibited lipid accumulation during 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation into adipocytes. RK reduced the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-α (C/EBP-α), peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) expressions and increased heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), Wnt10b, and β-catenin expressions in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Additionally, RK inhibited lipid accumulation, and adipogenic transcription factor and lipogenic protein expressions were all decreased by inhibiting HO-1 or β-catenin using tin protoporphyrin (SnPP) or β-catenin short-interfering RNA (siRNA), respectively. Furthermore, Wnt10b and β-catenin expressions were negatively regulation by SnPP.
CONCLUSION: RK may exert anti-adipogenic effects through modulation of the HO-1/Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway.