Raspberry Ketone represents a promising gastroprotective activity comparable to omeprazole. - GreenMedInfo Summary
The implication of the crosstalk of Nrf2 with NOXs, and HMGB1 in ethanol-induced gastric ulcer: Potential protective effect is afforded by Raspberry Ketone.
PLoS One. 2019 ;14(8):e0220548. Epub 2019 Aug 12. PMID: 31404064
Amira M Badr
Ethanol consumption is one of the common causative agents implicated in gastric ulcer development. Oxidative stress plays a major role in the induction and development of gastric ulceration. NADPH oxidases (NOXs) and Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) are key players in ethanol-induced ulcers. High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a ubiquitous nuclear protein, mediates various inflammation functions. However, the role of HMGB1 in ethanol-induced gastric ulcer is not yet elucidated. Raspberry Ketone (RK) is a natural phenolic compound with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study, absolute ethanol (7.5 ml/kg) was used to induce gastric ulceration in rats. Raspberry Ketone (RK) (50 mg/kg) was given orally one hour before the administration of absolute ethanol. Interestingly, ethanol-induced gastric ulcer was associated with Nrf2 downregulation, which was correlated with NOX-1, 2 NOX-4, and HMGB1 upregulation, and was significantly reversed by RK pre-treatment. RK pre-treatment provided 80% gastroprotection. Gastroprotective properties of RK were mediated via antioxidant, anti-inflammatory (suppression of NF-kB and tumor necrosis factor-α), and antiapoptotic activities (reduction of Bax/Bcl2 ratio). Gastroprotective properties of RK were confirmed by histopathological examination. In conclusion, this study is the first to provide evidence to the role of HMGB1 in ethanol-induced gastric ulcer, and the crosstalk of Nrf2, NOXs and HMGB1. It also demonstrates that RK represents a promising gastroprotective activity comparable to omeprazole.