Ameliorative Effect ofRoot Extract on Chlorpyrifos-Induced Oxidative Stress, Inflammation and Liver Injury in Rats.
Biomolecules. 2019 Jul 7 ;9(7). Epub 2019 Jul 7. PMID: 31284640
Exposure to organophosphorus insecticides causes several health problems to animals and humans. Red beetroot (RBR) is rich in antioxidant ingredients and possesses a promising hepatoprotective activity. This study evaluated the potential of RBR extract to prevent chlorpyrifos (CPF)-induced liver injury, with an emphasis on oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis. Rats received 10 mg/kg CPF and were treated with 300 mg/kg RBR extract for 28 days. CPF caused liver injury evidenced by elevated serum levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin, along with several histological alterations. Hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO) and nitric oxide (NO) levels, as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and pro-inflammatory cytokines were increased in CPF-intoxicated rats. RBR prevented CPF-induced histological alterations, and ameliorated liver function, LPO, NO, iNOS and pro-inflammatory cytokines. RBR boosted glutathione and antioxidant enzymes, and increased Nrf2 expression. In addition, RBR diminished Bax and caspase-3, and increased Bcl-2 expression. In conclusion, RBR prevented CPF-induced liver injury via attenuation of oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis. RBR enhanced antioxidant defenses, suggesting that it could be used as a potential therapeutic intervention to minimize CPF hepatotoxicity.