Involvement of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 in the anti-inflammatory effects of a red orange extract in human chondrocytes.
Nat Prod Res. 2010 Sep;24(15):1469-80. PMID: 20812134
Department of Physiological Sciences, University of Catania, I-95125 Catania, Italy.
In the present study, a complex of compounds (red orange complex, ROC), obtained from three red orange varieties (Citrus sinensis varieties: Moro, Tarocco and Sanguinello), containing cyanidin glycosides, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavanone glycosides and ascorbic acid, was screened to discover new lead compounds in the suppression of the production of key molecules released during inflammatory events in interleukin-1beta (IL-beta) stimulated human primary chondrocytes. The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX)-2 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and the release of nitric oxide, prostaglandin (PG)E(2) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) were determined. Indomethacin was used as an anti-inflammatory drug reference. ROC acts as a potent inhibitor of iNOS and COX-2 gene expression while also suppressing the production of PGE(2) and nitrite in human chondrocytes. In addition, ROC induces a significant decrease in ICAM expression and IL-8 release. These findings suggest that ROC exerts anti-inflammatory effects probably through the suppression of COX-2 and iNOS expression.