Red Yeast Rice inhibits homocysteine-induced endothelial damage. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Cholestin (Monascus purpureus rice) inhibits homocysteine-induced reactive oxygen species generation, nuclear factor-kappaB activation, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in human aortic endothelial cells.
J Biomed Sci. 2008 Mar;15(2):183-96. Epub 2007 Sep 30. read PMID: 17906965
Full Citation: "Hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with dysfunction and an independent risk factor of cardiovascular diseases. Cholestin (Monascus purpureus-fermented rice), contains a naturally-occurring statin, which has lipid-modulating and anti-inflammatory effects. We investigated the effects of Cholestin extract on the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) by homocysteine (HCY)-treated human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). Supplement of HAECs with Cholestin extract significantly suppressed cellular binding between the human monocytic cells U937 and HCY-stimulated HAECs. Quantitative PCR and immunoblot analysis showed that Cholestin extract significantly attenuated HCY-induced expression of VCAM-1 mRNA and protein, respectively. Gel shift assays showed that Cholestin treatment reduced HCY-activated transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). Furthermore, Cholestin also attenuated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in vitro and in HCY-treated HAECs. Supplement with statins including simvastatin and parastatin gave similar results as compared with Cholestin. In conclusion, Cholestin reduces HCY-stimulated endothelial adhesiveness as well as downregulating intracellular ROS formation, NF-kappaB activation, and VCAM-1 expression in HAECs, supporting the notion that the natural compound Cholestin may have potential implications in clinical atherosclerosis disease."