Betaine ameliorates impaired steroidogenesis and apoptosis in mice granulosa cells induced by high glucose concentration.
Syst Biol Reprod Med. 2020 Sep 27:1-10. Epub 2020 Sep 27. PMID: 32981384
Kosar Abbasi Samie
Betaine is a bioactive peptide whose beneficial effects on diabetes complications have been considered, previously. The present study aimed to investigate the possible protective effects of betaine against hyperglycemia-induced steroidogenesis impairment and apoptosis in mice granulosa cells. Ovarian granulosa cells were isolated from C57/BL6 mice and cultured in steroidogenesis medium (SM) containing 30 ng/ml FSH and 0.5 µM testosterone. The cells were cultured in SM containing low (5 mM) or high (30 mM) glucose concentrations for 24 h in the presence or absence of betaine (5 mM). At the end of the experiment, estradiol and progesterone were measured by ELISA in the culture medium. Expression of apoptosis and steroidogenesis associated genes and caspase-3 activity were determined by qRT-PCR and colorimetric assays, respectively. Exposure of mice granulosa cells to high glucose concentration inhibited the steroidogenesis by decreasing estradiol and progesterone secretion and downregulation of steroidogenesis-related genes including, and. Betaine treatment could ameliorate the steroidogenesis impairment at molecular and biochemical levels. High glucose concentration also enhanced apoptosis in mice granulosa cells that were characterized by elevation of caspase-3 activity, upregulation ofgene and downregulation ofgene. Betaine treatment could attenuate the apoptotic-related changes induced by high glucose concentration in granulosa cells. According to the results of the present study, betaine could ameliorate the adverse effects of hyperglycemia on the physiological function of ovarian granulosa cells. The results highlight the potential role of betaine for the intervention of ovarian dysfunction in diabetic patients.: AABA: Betaine-α-aminobutyric acid; AGEs: Advanced glycation end products;Associated X; bcl2: B-cell lymphoma 2; AMPK: AMP-activated protein kinase; BHMT: Betaine homocysteine methyltransferase; C/EBP: CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins; Cyp11a1: Cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome P450;: Cytochrome P450 aromatase; DM: Diabetes mellitus; E2: Estradiol; ERS: Endoplasmic reticulum stress; GCs: Granulosa cells; GLUT: Glucose transporter; FSH: Follicle-stimulating hormone; 3βHSD: 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase; IL-1β: interleukin-1ß; LH: Luteinizing hormone; MDCK: Madin-Darby Canine Kidney cell; MT: Methionine synthase, MTT: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide; NLRP3: NLR Family Pyrin Domain Containing 3; NF-κB: Nuclear factor κB; P4: Progesterone; ROS: Reactive oxygen species; SGLT: Sodium dependent glucose transporter; SLC7A6: Solute Carrier Family 7 Member 6; StAR: Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; STZ: Streptozotocin; Tumor necrosis factor α: TNF-α; TXNIP: Thioredoxin interacting protein.