Effects of ellagic acid on chemosensitivity to 5-fluorouracil in colorectal carcinoma cells.
Anticancer Res. 2012 Oct ;32(10):4413-8. PMID: 23060566
Ellagic acid has been demonstrated to inhibit the growth of several types of cancer cells. However, whether it sensitizes human colorectal carcinoma cells to 5-fluorouracil, has not yet been investigated. Colorectal carcinoma HT-29, Colo 320DM, SW480 and LoVo cells were treated with ellagic acid (2.5-25μg/ml) and 5-fluorouracil (5-25 μM) alone and in combination and then the viability was assessed by trypan blue exclusion, apoptosis by annexin-V labeling, mitochondria membrane potential by staining with rhodamine 123, and changes in the levels of proteins involved in apoptosis by immunoblotting.Ellagic acid and 5-fluorouracil synergistically inhibited cell proliferation of HT-29, Colo 320DM and SW480 cells, but cytotoxicity toward LoVo cells seems not to be potentiated by this combination. The combination also elevated apoptotic cell death of HT-29 and Colo 320DM cells. The mitochondria membrane potential was lost in combination-treated HT-29 cells, due to increased B cell lymphoma 2-associated protein X (BAX): B cell lymphoma 2 protein (BCL-2) ratio and caspase-3 activity. Ellagic acid synergistically potentiated chemosensitivity to 5-fluorouracil in at least three colorectal cancer cell lines. The results indicate that ellagic acid has potential as a novel agent sensitizing colorectal cancer cells to 5-fluorouracil.