Loganin Attenuates Septic Acute Renal Injury with the Participation of AKT and Nrf2/HO-1 Signaling Pathways.
Drug Des Devel Ther. 2021 ;15:501-513. Epub 2021 Feb 11. PMID: 33603340
Purpose: Sepsis, a destructive inflammatory response syndrome, is the principal reason to induce death in the intensive care unit. Loganin has been proved to possess the property of anti-inflammation, antioxidant, neuroprotection, and sedation. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate whether Loganin could alleviate acute kidney injury (AKI) during sepsis and investigate the latent mechanisms.
Methods: Septic AKI models were established by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) surgery in mice and given Loganin (20, 40, 80 mg/kg) by gavage. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-stimulated human kidney proximal tubular (HK2) cells incubated in Loganin (5, 10, 20μ M) were used to explore the accurate mechanisms. Survival rate, renal function (creatinine and blood urea nitrogen), and renal pathological changes were detected in septic mice. Oxidative stress markers (SOD, GSH-Px, MDA, and SOD), mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial calcium overload,and nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/heme-oxygenase 1 (HO-1) pathway activation in vivo and in vitro were determined by commercial kits and Western blot. Cell apoptosis, apoptotic-related protein (cleaved caspase-3, Bcl-2, and Bax) expression and protein kinase B (AKT) phosphorylation in vivo and in vitro were measured by TUNEL staining and Western blot. Finally, AKT blockage by 10 μM LY294002 or Nrf2 inhibition by10 μ M ML385 were utilized to prove the involvement of AKT and Nrf2/HO-1 pathway in AKI during sepsis.
Results: We found Loganin treatment (20, 40, 80 mg/kg) mitigated septic AKI reflected by elevated renal function and palliative pathological changes. Oxidative stress and apoptosis in the kidney and LPS-treated HK2 cells were also inhibited by Loganin administration, which was accompanied by AKT and Nrf2/HO-1 pathway activation. Besides, the protective effects of Loganin could be diminished by AKT or Nrf2 blockage, indicating the involvement of AKT and Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.
Conclusion: The results suggested that the protective effects of Loganin on AKI during sepsis might be mediated by AKT and Nrf2/HO-1 pathway signaling activation in kidney proximal tubular cells.