Anticarcinogenic and hepatotoxic interactions between retinyl acetate and butylated hydroxytoluene in rats.
Cancer Res. 1986 Oct;46(10):5264-9. PMID: 3093062
The natural retinoid, retinyl acetate (RA), and the phenolic antioxidant, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), are both effective inhibitors of mammary carcinogenesis in rats. The present study was designed to determine if an increased inhibition of mammary carcinogenesis is obtained when RA and BHT are administered in combination. At age 50 days (time 0), virgin, female Sprague-Dawley rats received a single intragastric instillation of 16 mg of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene dissolved in 1 ml sesame oil. Groups of 30 carcinogen-treated rats received Wayne Lab Chow supplemented with (per kg diet) 250 mg RA, 5000 mg BHT, or 250 mg RA plus 5000 mg BHT by the following schedule: -2 to +1 week; +1 week until the end of the experiment; -2 weeks to end; or none. Combined administration of RA plus BHT by the -2 weeks to end schedule was more effective in mammary cancer chemoprevention than was RA alone or BHT alone; the interaction of RA and BHT was additive. Similarly, administration of RA plus BHT by the -2 weeks to end protocol was more active in chemoprevention than was RA plus BHT administered either from weeks -2 to +1 or +1 week to end. Chronic exposure to RA plus BHT induced a high incidence of hepatic fibrosis and bile duct hyperplasia; these changes were not observed in controls and were seen in low incidence in animals exposed to RA only or BHT only. These data indicate that enhanced anticarcinogenic activity can be obtained through the use of "combination chemoprevention" regimens; however, chemopreventive compounds may interact not only to inhibit carcinogenesis but also to induce toxicity.