Effects of liver-supplemented food on the development of embryos in mice.
Biol Pharm Bull. 2003 Apr;26(4):553-6. PMID: 12673043
Department of Clinical and Biomedical Sciences, Showa Pharmaceutical University, Machida, Tokyo, Japan. email@example.com
We examined whether dietary intake of cattle liver-supplemented food induces reproductive effects in dams and developmental effects in embryos in the mouse model. Seven groups of 19 to 35 female mice each were given either powdered food or the food supplemented with crude liver homogenate, its lipophilic component, the defatted liver homogenate or vitamin A (retinol palmitate) during a 25-d period spanning from a week prior to mating to gestation day 18 (GD18). Fetal mortality and incidence of external abnormalities of the fetuses whose dams were given the diet supplemented with the crude liver homogenate increased dose-dependently with an increase in the supplemented amount of the crude liver homogenate. On the other hand, the defatted liver homogenate did not induce any reproductive or teratological effect. The vitamin A (VA)-supplemented food (950 IU/5 g food as VA) induced approximately the same levels of the incidence of total external abnormalities appearing at the same affected regions or organs as the foods supplemented with the 700 mg crude liver homogenate (1029 IU/5 g food as VA) and its lipophilic component (950 IU/5 g food as VA). The content of VA (as 1029 IU/5 g food) in the crude liver homogenate was found to be approximately equal to that in the lipophilic component (950 IU/5 g food as VA). Therefore, it was concluded that VA plays an important role in induction of the lethal and teratogenic effects in the fetuses whose dams were given the powdered foods supplemented with the crude liver homogenate and its lipophilic component.