Anti-Atherosclerotic Effects of Vitamins D and E in Suppression of Atherogenesis.
J Cell Physiol. 2016 Dec 14. Epub 2016 Dec 14. PMID: 27966778
Atherosclerosis is a progressive and multifactorial disease which occurs under the influence of various risk factors including endothelial dysfunction (ED), oxidative stress, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation. In contract to the initial hypotheses on the usefulness of vitamin E supplementation for cardiovascular disease prevention, large outcome trials showed consumption of vitamin E has no obvious effect on cardiovascular disease and, in some cases, it may even increase the rate of mortality. This seemingly unexpected finding may be due to the opposite effects of vitamin E compounds. Vitamin E is a group of compounds which have different and even opposing effects, yet in most of the studies, the exact consumed component of vitamin E is not determined. It appears that the combined consumption of gamma-tocopherol, vitamin C, vitamin D, and tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) may be extremely effective in both preventing atherogenesis and suppressing plaque development. In this regard, one of main issues is effect of vitamin E and D deficiency on microRNAs network in atherosclerosis. Various studies have indicated that miRNAs have key roles in atherosclerosis pathogenesis. The deficiency of vitamin E and D could provide a deregulation for miRNAs network and these events could lead to progression of atherosclerosis. Here, we highlighted a variety of mechanisms involve in the progression of atherosclerosis and effects of vitamin D and E on these mechanisms. Moreover, we summarized miRNAs involve in atherosclerosis and their regulation by vitamin E and D deficiency. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.