The gut microbiome and microbial translocation in multiple sclerosis.
Clin Immunol. 2017 Mar 9. Epub 2017 Mar 9. PMID: 28286112
Individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) have a distinct intestinal microbial community (microbiota) and increased low-grade translocation of bacteria from the intestines into the circulation. The observed change of intestinal bacteria in MS patients regulate immune functions involved in MS pathogenesis. These functions include: systemic and central nervous system (CNS) immunity (including peripheral regulatory T cell function), the blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and CNS-resident cell activity. This review discusses the MS intestinal microbiota implication on MS systemic- and CNS-immunopathology. We introduce the possible contributions of MS low-grade microbial translocation (LG-MT) to the development of MS, and end on a discussion on microbiota therapies for MS patients.