Antioxidant Melatonin: Potential Functions in Improving Cerebral Autoregulation After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.
Front Physiol. 2018 ;9:1146. Epub 2018 Aug 17. PMID: 30174621
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a subtype of stroke with high mortality and morbidity. Impaired cerebral autoregulation following SAH has been reported owing to effects on sympathetic control, endothelial function, myogenic response, and cerebral metabolism. Impaired cerebral autoregulation is associated with early brain injury, cerebral vasospasm/delayed cerebral ischemia, and SAH prognosis. However, few drugs have been reported to improve cerebral autoregulation after SAH. Melatonin is a powerful antioxidant that is effective (easily crosses the blood brain barrier) and safe (tolerated in large doses without toxicity). Theoretically, melatonin may impact the control mechanisms of cerebral autoregulation via antioxidative effects, protection of endothelial cell integrity, suppression of sympathetic nerve activity, increase in nitric oxide bioavailability, mediation of the myogenic response, and amelioration of hypoxemia. Furthermore, melatonin may have a comprehensive effect on cerebral autoregulation. This review discusses the potential effects of melatonin on cerebral autoregulation following SAH, in terms of the association between pharmacological activities and the mechanisms of cerebral autoregulation.