Review: factors affecting the oral uptake and translocation of polystyrene nanoparticles - GreenMedInfo Summary
Factors affecting the oral uptake and translocation of polystyrene nanoparticles: histological and analytical evidence.
J Drug Target. 1995 ;3(1):65-70. PMID: 7655823
Centre for Drug Delivery Research, School of Pharmacy, University of London, UK.
Quantitative and qualitative evidence from our laboratories on the absorption and translocation of polystyrene latex nanoparticles both by histological (qualitative) and analytical measurement of levels of polystyrene (quantitative) is briefly reviewed in this paper. We have previously compared the uptake of nonionized polystyrene latex ranging in size from 50nm to 3 microns, and made some comparisons of uptake between carboxylated microspheres and nonionic systems, showing the lower uptake of the former through the lymphoid tissue of the gastrointestinal tract. Size is a key parameter, uptake increasing with decreasing particle diameter. Early evidence suggested that uptake is by way of the Peyer's patches and other elements of the gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). Adsorption of hydrophilic block-copolymers onto polystyrene markedly reduces the uptake by intestinal GALT. Modification of the surface with specific ligands such as by covalent attachment of tomato lectin molecules has indicated widespread uptake by non-GALT tissues, following their binding to and internalisation by enterocytes. The ability to decrease and increase uptake is clear evidence of a phenomenon which has the potential for further control to allow it to be exploited fully for drug or vaccine delivery. The evidence to date with nanoparticles as carriers systems for labile drugs such as proteins by the oral route remains to be substantiated.