A review of the induced cytoprotective effects of Phloretin on mammalian cells. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Phloretin-induced cytoprotective effects on mammalian cells: A mechanistic view and future directions.
Biofactors. 2016 Jan-Feb;42(1):13-40. Epub 2016 Jan 30. PMID: 26826024
Marcos Roberto de Oliveira
Phloretin (C15 H14 O5 ), a dihydrochalcone flavonoid, is mainly found in fruit, leaves, and roots of apple tree. Phloretin exerts antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor activities in mammalian cells through mechanisms that have been partially elucidated throughout the years. Phloretin bioavailability is well known in humans, but still remains to be better studied in experimental animals, such as mouse and rat. The focus of the present review is to gather information regarding the mechanisms involved in the phloretin-elicited effects in different in vitro and in vivo experimental models. Several manuscripts were analyzed and data raised by authors were described and discussed here in a mechanistic manner. Comparisons between the effects elicited by phloretin and phloridzin were made whenever possible, as well as with other polyphenols, clarifying questions about the use of phloretin as a potential therapeutic agent. Toxicological aspects associated to phloretin exposure were also discussed here. Furthermore, a special section containing future directions was created as a suggestive guide towards the elucidation of phloretin-related actions in mammalian cells and tissues.