Dissecting the roles of thymoquinone on the prevention and the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma: an overview on the current state of knowledge.
Infect Agent Cancer. 2019 ;14:10. Epub 2019 Apr 16. PMID: 31015860
Thymoquinone (TQ) is the principal active monomer isolated from the seed of the medicinal plant. This compound has antitumor effects against various types of cancer including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), mainly due to its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Several pre-clinical studies showed that TQ, through the modulation of different molecular pathways, is able to induce anti-apoptotic and anti-proliferative effects in HCC, without signs of toxicity. Moreover, it has been suggested that TQ has hepatoprotective effects by enhancing the tolerability and effectivity of neoadjuvant therapy prior to liver surgery, although the underlying mechanisms are not completely understood. Based on these findings, is assumable that TQ could represent a valuable therapeutic option for patients suffering from HCC. In this review, we summarize the potential roles of TQ in the prevention and treatment of HCC, by revising the preclinical studies and by highlighting the potential applications of TQ as a therapeutic choice for HCC treatment into clinical practices.