Health Benefits of Carotenoids: A Role of Carotenoids in the Prevention of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.
Prev Nutr Food Sci. 2019 Jun ;24(2):103-113. Epub 2019 Jun 30. PMID: 31328113
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common chronic liver diseases with a prevalence of ~25% worldwide. NAFLD includes simple hepatic steatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis, which can further progress to hepatocellular carcinoma. Therefore, effective strategies for the prevention of NAFLD are needed. The pathogenesis of NAFLD is complicated due to diverse injury insults, such as fat accumulation, oxidative stress, inflammation, lipotoxicity, and apoptosis, which may act synergistically. Studies have shown that carotenoids, a natural group of isoprenoid pigments, prevent the development of NAFLD by exerting antioxidant, lipid-lowering, anti-inflammatory, anti-fibrotic, and insulin-sensitizing properties. This review summarizes the protective action of carotenoids, with primary focuses on astaxanthin, lycopene,β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, fucoxanthin, and crocetin, against the development and progression of NAFLD.