Ecological Studies of the UVB-Vitamin D-Cancer Hypothesis.
Anticancer Res. 2012 Jan ;32(1):223-36. PMID: 22213311
Sunlight, Nutrition, and Health Research Center, P.O. Box 641603, San Francisco, CA 94164-1603, U.S.A. email@example.com.
UNLABELLED: Background/Aim: This paper reviews ecological studies of the ultraviolet-B (UVB)-vitamin D-cancer hypothesis based on geographical variation of cancer incidence and/or mortality rates.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The review is based largely on three ecological studies of cancer rates from the United States; one each from Australia, China, France, Japan, and Spain; and eight multicountry, multifactorial studies of cancer incidence rates from more than 100 countries.
RESULTS: This review consistently found strong inverse correlations with solar UVB for 15 types of cancer: bladder, breast, cervical, colon, endometrial, esophageal, gastric, lung, ovarian, pancreatic, rectal, renal, and vulvar cancer; and Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Weaker evidence exists for nine other types of cancer: brain, gallbladder, laryngeal, oral/pharyngeal, prostate, and thyroid cancer; leukemia; melanoma; and multiple myeloma.
CONCLUSION: The evidence for the UVB-vitamin D-cancer hypothesis is very strong in general and for many types of cancer in particular.