Flavonol-rich RVHxR from Rhus verniciflua Stokes and its major compound fisetin inhibits inflammation-related cytokines and angiogenic factor in rheumatoid arthritic fibroblast-like synovial cells and in vivo models.
Int Immunopharmacol. 2009 Mar;9(3):268-76. Epub 2008 Dec 25. PMID: 19111632
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an aggressive inflammatory disease in which cytokines/chemokines are thought to recruit leukocytes and induce angiogenesis. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of flavonol-rich residual layer of hexane fraction from Rhus verniciflua Stokes (RVHxR) and its major compound fisetin on inflammatory cytokine/chemokine production and angiogenic factor in IL-1beta-stimulated RA fibroblast-like synovial cells (FLS) and inflammatory in vivo models. Flavonol-rich RVHxR and its major compound fisetin significantly inhibited IL-1beta-induced FLS proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Flavonol-rich RVHxR and fisetin significantly decreased IL-1beta-induced inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, interleukin (IL)-6)/chemokines (IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) of RA FLS. Flavonol-rich RVHxR dose dependently diminished the phophorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) and phospho-Jun NH((2))-terminal kinase (JNK), and its down regulation induced by RVHxR at nontoxic concentrations, while activated the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK in IL-1beta-stimulated RA FLS. The p38 specific inhibitor SB203580 cotreatment with RVHxR effectively increased the expression of VEGF and blocked the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK in IL-1beta-stimulated RA FLS, confirming a critical role of p38 MAPK pathway in angiogenesis inhibition. In experimental inflammation-related models, flavonol-rich RVHxR and fisetin have shown significant anti-inflammatory activities on vascular permeability, leukocyte migration and cellular immunity. Also, flavonol-rich RVHxR and fisetin treatments significantly reduced the incidence and severity of collagen-induced arthritis model. These results suggest that RVHxR and its major compound fisetin have shown potent suppressive effects on some inflammatory cytokines/chemokines and angiogenic factor in IL-1beta-stimulated RA FLS and inflammatory in vivo models. We believe that flavonol-rich RVHxR is a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of inflammatory and angiogenesis related diseases.