Rice hull smoke extract inactivates Salmonella Typhimurium in laboratory media and protects infected mice against mortality.
J Food Sci. 2012 Jan ;77(1):M80-5. Epub 2011 Dec 2. PMID: 22132793
Department of Molecular Science&Technology, Ajou University, Suwon, Republic of Korea.
A previously characterized rice hull smoke extract (RHSE) was tested for bactericidal activity against Salmonella Typhimurium using the disc-diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of RHSE was 0.822% (v/v). The in vivo antibacterial activity of RHSE (1.0%, v/v) was also examined in a Salmonella-infected Balb/c mouse model. Mice infected with a sublethal dose of the pathogens were administered intraperitoneally a 1.0% solution of RHSE at four 12-h intervals during the 48-h experimental period. The results showed that RHSE inhibited bacterial growth by 59.4%, 51.4%, 39.6%, and 28.3% compared to 78.7%, 64.6%, 59.2%, and 43.2% inhibition with the medicinal antibiotic vancomycin (20 mg/mL). By contrast, 4 consecutive administrations at 12-h intervals elicited the most effective antibacterial effect of 75.0% and 85.5% growth reduction of the bacteria by RHSE and vancomycin, respectively. The combination of RHSE and vancomycin acted synergistically against the pathogen. The inclusion of RHSE (1.0% v/w) as part of a standard mouse diet fed for 2 wk decreased mortality of 10 mice infected with lethal doses of the Salmonella. Photomicrographs of histological changes in liver tissues show that RHSE also protected the liver against Salmonella-induced pathological necrosis lesions. These beneficial results suggest that the RHSE has the potential to complement wood-derived smokes as antimicrobial flavor formulations for application to human foods and animal feeds. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The new antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory rice hull derived liquid smoke has the potential to complement widely used wood-derived liquid smokes as an antimicrobial flavor and health-promoting formulation for application to foods.