Role of L-Type Amino Acid Transporter 1 (LAT1) for the Selective Cytotoxicity of Sesamol in Human Melanoma Cells.
Molecules. 2019 Oct 27 ;24(21). Epub 2019 Oct 27. PMID: 31717859
Sesamol is effective against melanoma cells with less damage to normal cells. The underlying selective cytotoxicity of sesamol in melanoma vs. non-cancerous cells is undefined. Melanoma cells differ from normal cells by over-expression of the L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1). We sought to clarify the transport mechanism on selective cytotoxicity of sesamol in melanoma cells. A human melanoma cell line (SK-MEL-2) and African monkey epithelial cell line (Vero) were used to study the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of sesamol. The intracellular concentration of sesamol was quantified by UV-HPLC. The cytotoxicity was determined by neutral red uptake assay. Sesamol showed a higher distribution volume and uptake clearance in SK-MEL-2 than Vero cells. Sesamol was distributed by both carrier-mediated and passive transport by having greater carrier-mediated transport into SK-MEL-2 cells than Vero cells. Higher mRNA expression and function of LAT1 over LAT2 were evident in SK-MEL-2 cells compared to Vero cells. Sesamol uptake and sesamol cytotoxicity were inhibited by the LAT1 inhibitor, suggesting LAT1 had a role in sesamol transport and its bioactivity in melanoma. The LAT1-mediated transport of sesamol is indicative of how it engages cytotoxicity in melanoma cells with promising therapeutic benefits.