Rosmarinic acid attenuates inflammatory responses through inhibiting HMGB1/TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease.
Life Sci. 2019 Apr 15 ;223:158-165. Epub 2019 Mar 14. PMID: 30880023
Inflammation contributes to the pathological processes in patients and animal models of PD. Rosmarinic acid (RA) has been demonstrated to protect neurons in PD models. The present study aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of RA on PD and reveal possible pharmacological mechanisms. 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) was injected to mice to establish PD model in vivo. BV-2 cells were exposed to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP) andα-synuclein to establish PD model in vitro. Results showed that treatment with RA dose-dependently improved motor function of PD mice, increased the number of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells, reduced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and inhibited microglia activation in ventral midbrain. In cell study, RA also decreased MPPorα-synuclein-induced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, RA treatment downregulated the expression levels of HMGB1, TLR4 and Myd88 and inhibited NF-κB nuclear expression both in PD animal and cell models. These findings indicated that RA could attenuate inflammatory responses through suppressing HMGB1/TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway, which may contribute to its anti-PD activity.