Rosmarinic Acid, the Main Effective Constituent of Orthosiphon stamineus, Inhibits Intestinal Epithelial Apoptosis Via Regulation of the Nrf2 Pathway in Mice.
Molecules. 2019 Aug 21 ;24(17). Epub 2019 Aug 21. PMID: 31438521
Many studies have shown that Orthosiphon stamineus extract (OE) has antioxidant activity, and we previously reported that OE protects the intestine against injury from a high-fat diet. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this protective effect of OE was unclear. Here, OE was separated according to polarity and molecular weight, and the antioxidant activity of each component was compared. The components with the highest antioxidant activity were analyzed by HPLC, which confirmed that rosmarinic acid (RA) was the main effective constituent in OE. OE and RA were then tested in a mouse high-fat diet-induced intestinal injury model. The antioxidant indices and morphological characteristics of the mouse jejunum were measured, and activation of the nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway and apoptosis of jejunal epithelial cells were analyzed. Of all the constituents in OE, RA contributed the most. Both RA and OE activated the Nrf2 pathway and increased downstream antioxidant enzyme activity. RA and OE protected the mouse intestine against high-fat diet-induced oxidative stress by preventing intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis via both extracellular and intracellular pathways. Thus, RA, the main effective constituent in OE, inhibits intestinal epithelial apoptosis by regulating the Nrf2 pathway in mice.