Rumen-Protected 5-Hydroxytryptophan Improves Sheep Melatonin Synthesis in the Pineal Gland and Intestinal Tract.
Med Sci Monit. 2019 May 15 ;25:3605-3616. Epub 2019 May 15. PMID: 31091223
BACKGROUND Based on the extensive biological effects of melatonin (MLT), it is beneficial to increase the MLT content in the bodies of animals at a specific physiological stage. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of a diet supplemented with rumen-protected (RP) 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) on the pineal gland and intestinal tract MLT synthesis of sheep. MATERIAL AND METHODS Eighteen Kazakh sheep were assigned randomly to 3 diet groups: control group (CT, corn-soybean meal basal diet), CT+111 group (111 mg/kg BW RP 5-HTP), and CT+222 group (222 mg/kg BW RP 5-HTP). The gene expressions of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC), arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT), hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT), monoamine oxidase A (MAOA), and the intermediates of MLT synthesis were observed from the pineal gland and intestinal tract by the reverse transcription (RT)-PCR method. The 5-HTP, 5-HT, N-acetylserotonin (NAS), MLT, and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) contents in the pineal gland and intestinal tract were analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS The study showed that the pineal gland HIOMT expression (P<0.05), MLT (P<0.05) and 5-HIAA (P<0.05) levels in the 222 mg/kg group significantly increased compared to those in the CT and CT+111 mg/kg groups. In addition, the AADC (P<0.01) and AA-NAT (P<0.05) gene expression levels in the duodenum and jejunum were increased by the supplementation of RP 5-HTP. CONCLUSIONS Rumen-protected 5-hydroxytryptophan promoted melatonin synthesis in the pineal gland and intestinal tract during the natural light period.