Safety assessment of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) essential oil as a food ingredient. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Safety assessment of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) essential oil as a food ingredient.
Food Chem Toxicol. 2009 Jan;47(1):22-34. Epub 2008 Nov 12. PMID: 19032971
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Coriander essential oil is used as a flavor ingredient, but it also has a long history as a traditional medicine. It is obtained by steam distillation of the dried fully ripe fruits (seeds) of Coriandrum sativum L. The oil is a colorless or pale yellow liquid with a characteristic odor and mild, sweet, warm and aromatic flavor; linalool is the major constituent (approximately 70%). Based on the results of a 28 day oral gavage study in rats, a NOEL for coriander oil is approximately 160 mg/kg/day. In a developmental toxicity study, the maternal NOAEL of coriander oil was 250 mg/kg/day and the developmental NOAEL was 500 mg/kg/day. Coriander oil is not clastogenic, but results of mutagenicity studies for the spice and some extracts are mixed; linalool is non-mutagenic. Coriander oil has broad-spectrum, antimicrobial activity. Coriander oil is irritating to rabbits, but not humans; it is not a sensitizer, although the whole spice may be. Based on the history of consumption of coriander oil without reported adverse effects, lack of its toxicity in limited studies and lack of toxicity of its major constituent, linalool, the use of coriander oil as an added food ingredient is considered safe at present levels of use.