Safflower bud inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and prevents bone loss in ovariectomized mice.
Phytomedicine. 2017 Oct 15 ;34:6-13. Epub 2017 Jul 4. PMID: 28899511
BACKGROUND: The powder and extract of safflower seeds are known to be effective in the prevention of bone loss in ovariectomized animals. However, the inhibitory effect and molecular mechanisms of safflower bud (SB), the germinated safflower, on bone destruction is unclear.
PURPOSE: The present study was designed to investigate the inhibitory effect and molecular mechanism of SB on osteoclastic differentiation and on bone loss in ovarietomized (OVX) mice.
METHODS: Osteoclastogenesis was determined by TRAP staining, F-actin ring formation, and bone resorption assay. NF-κB and MAPKs activation was analyzed by transfection assay and Western blot, respectively. Real-time PCR was performed to examine the expression of osteoclastogenesis-related genes. Histological changes, increases in TRAP-positive cells, and cathepsin K expression were examined in the metaphysis ofOVX mice. Density of bone marrow was evaluated by µCT.
RESULTS: SB inhibited the RANKL-induced differentiation of BMDMs into osteoclasts in a dose-dependent manner. F-actin ring formation and bone resorption were also reduced by SB in RANKL-treated BMDMs. In addition, SB decreased the activation of NF-κB and MAPKs and the expression of osteoclastogenesis-related genes in BMDMs treated with RANKL. Feeding of SB-included diet prevented bone loss in OVX mice. The number of TRAP-positive cells and level of protein expression of cathepsin K was reduced and bone mineral density was increased in the metaphysis of mice fed SB compared with OVX mice.
CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that SB can be a preventive and therapeutic candidate for destructive bone diseases.