Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in combination with resistance training reduced blood pressure in the elderly hypertensive men: a randomized controlled trial.
Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2021 Jan 26. Epub 2021 Jan 26. PMID: 33496985
AIM: We aimed to determine the independent and combined effects of saffron and resistance training on blood pressure (BP) and some chemical biomarkers in the elderly with hypertension.
METHOD: The present study was a randomized clinical trial on hypertensive men aged 60-70 years who were assigned to a control group (CO) and three experimental groups; resistance training (RT), saffron (S) and resistance training + saffron (RTS) for 12 weeks. Dynamic resistance training was applied with moderate intensity. Patients in S and RTS received one tablet containing 200 mg of saffron daily. BP variables, chemical biomarkers, and anthropometric indicators, were measured at weeks 0, 6, 12, and 18. Data were analyzed by repeated measurements analysis of variance (ANOVA) with 95% confidence interval (CI).
RESULTS: In comparison to the CO (153.3±1.18, CI=10.9-20.2, P˂0.001) and S (143.3±1.18, CI=0.97-10.2, P=0.01), RTS (137.7±1.18) reduced systolic blood pressure with the effect size partial eta squared (η) of 0.68. Nitric oxide (NO) increased in the RTS compared to the CO group (CI= 0.13-0.62, P=0.001). There was a significant increase and decrease in adiponectin and endothelin-1 in the S (CI= 0.03-1.20, P=0.012) (CI= 4.30-17.3, P˂0.001) and RT (CI= 0.36-1.60, P˂0.001) (CI= 2.26-15.3, P=0.003) compared to the CO respectively. The ηfor NO, adiponectin and ET-1 was 0.35, 0.35 and 0.38 respectively. There was no significant difference between the groups for ANP.
CONCLUSION: Resistance training and consumption of saffron can improve blood pressure in the elderly with hypertension by affecting the factors involved in altering vascular endothelial resistance.