Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) Tea Intake Prevents Learning/Memory Defects and Neurobiochemical Alterations Induced by Aflatoxin B1 Exposure in Adult Mice.
Neurochem Res. 2017 May 2. Epub 2017 May 2. PMID: 28462452
Zacharoula I Linardaki
This study aimed to investigate the potential neurotoxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and the preventive effects of saffron. Male Balb-c mice received AFB1 (0.6 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally for 4 days), saffron infusion (90 mg styles/200 mL, ad libitum access for 2 weeks) or saffron infusion plus AFB1 (saffron treatment as previously plus 0.6 mg AFB1/kg/day intraperitoneally for the last 4 days). Control mice were intraperitoneally injected with DMSO:saline (1:1, v/v) during AFB1 treatment. Learning/memory was assessed by passive avoidance task. The activity of acetylcholinesterase [AChE, salt-(SS)/detergent-soluble(DS) isoforms], butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE, SS/DS isoforms), monoamine oxidase (MAO-A, MAO-B), the levels of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde, MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH), were determined in whole brain (minus cerebellum) and cerebellum. We demonstrate for the first time that AFB1 administration impaired the memory of adult mice and decreased significantly whole brain AChE and BuChE activity, cerebellar AChE activity and cerebral GSH content. Moreover, MAO isoforms activity in whole brain, MAO-B activity in cerebellum and MDA levels of both tissues were significantly higher after AFB1 treatment. Pre-treatment with saffron prevented memory decline, activation of MAO-A and MAO-B in whole brain and cerebellum, respectively, and lipid peroxidation triggered by AFB1. Interestingly, the activity of AChE isoforms in whole brain, DS-AChE in cerebellum and GSH levels of both tissues were further significantly decreased in saffron +AFB1-treated mice compared with AFB1 group. Our findings support the neuroprotectiveefficacy of saffron against AFB1 in adult mice.