Safranal protects against ischemia-induced PC12 cell injury through inhibiting oxidative stress and apoptosis.
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2021 04 ;394(4):707-716. Epub 2020 Oct 31. PMID: 33128592
Safranal, isolated from saffron (Crocus sativus L.), is known to possesses neuroprotective effects. In this study, the neuroprotective potential of safranal against PC12 cell injury triggered by ischemia/reperfusion was investigated. PC12 cells were pretreated with safranal at concentration ranges of 10-160 μM for 2 h and then deprived from oxygen-glucose-serum for 6 h, followed by reoxygenation for 24 h (OGD condition). 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), 2,7-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCF-DA), and comet assays were used to measure the extent of cellular viability, reactive oxygen substances (ROS), and DNA damage, respectively. Also, propidium iodide (PI) flow cytometry assay and western blotting of bax, bcl-2, and cleaved caspase-3 were performed for assessment of apoptosis. OGD exposure reduced the cell viability and increased intracellular ROS production, oxidative DNA damage, and apoptosis, in comparison with untreated control cells. Pretreatment with safranal (40 and 160 μM) significantly attenuated OGD-induced PC12 cell death, oxidative damage, and apoptosis. Furthermore, safranal markedly reduced the overexpression of bax/bcl-2 ratio and active caspase-3 following OGD (p < 0.05). The present findings indicated that safranal protects against OGD-induced neurotoxicity via modulating of oxidative and apoptotic responses.Graphical abstract The schematic representation of the mode of action of safranal against PC12 cells death induced by oxygen-glucose-serum deprivationand reoxygenation (OGD-R).