Second generation antipsychotic-induced mitochondrial alterations: Implications for increased risk of metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2018 Feb 12. Epub 2018 Feb 12. PMID: 29449054
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is seen more frequently in persons with schizophrenia than in the general population, and these metabolic abnormalities are further aggravated by second generation antipsychotic (SGA) drugs. Although the underlying mechanisms responsible for the increased prevalence of MetS among patients under SGA treatment are not well understood, alterations in mitochondria function have been implicated. We performed a comprehensive evaluation of the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathophysiology of drug-induced MetS in schizophrenia. We found a downregulation in genes encoding subunits of the electron transport chain complexes (ETC), enzyme activity, and mitochondrial dynamics in peripheral blood cells from patients at high-risk for MetS. Additionally, we evaluated several markers of energy metabolism in lymphoblastoid cell lines from patients with schizophrenia and controls following exposure to antipsychotics. We found that the high-risk drugs clozapine and olanzapine induced a general down-regulation of genes involved in the ETC, as well as decreased activities of the corresponding enzymes, ATP levels and a significant decrease in all the functional parameters of mitochondrial oxygen consumption in cells from patients and controls. We also observed that the medium-risk SGA quetiapine decreased oxygen consumption and respiratory control ratio in controls and patients. Additionally, clozapine and olanzapine induced a downregulation of Drp1 and Mfn2 both in terms of mRNA and protein levels. Together, these data suggest that an intrinsic defect in multiple components of oxidative metabolism may contribute to the increased prevalence of MetS in patients under treatment with SGAs known to cause risk for MetS.