Validation of ethnomedicinal potential of Tinospora cordifolia for anticancer and immunomodulatory activities and quantification of bioactive molecules by HPTLC.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2015 Aug 5. Epub 2015 Aug 5. PMID: 26253577
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers ex Hook. f.&Thomas. (Menispermaceae) is one of the most widely used plants in various traditional medicinal systems including"Ayurveda". The plant is used for the treatment of jaundice, rheumatism, urinary disorder, skin diseases, diabetes and anemia. The phytoconstituents present in the plant belongs to different class of compounds such as alkaloids, diterpenoids lactones, glycosides, steroids, phenol, aliphatic compounds and polysaccharides.
AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of present study was the isolation, structure elucidation, quantification and pharmacological evaluation of secondary metabolites from Tinospora cordifolia for anticancer and immunomodulatory activities.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Different extracts and fractions were prepared from the stem of Tinospora cordifolia. Pure molecules were isolated using normal phase chromatography and characterized on the basis of NMR and mass spectroscopic techniques. The anti-cancer and immunomodulatory activities of different extracts, fractions and isolated compounds were evaluated against four different human cancer cell lines, KB (human oral squamous carcinoma), CHOK-1 (hamster ovary), HT-29 (human colon cancer) and SiHa (human cervical cancer) and murine primary cells respectively. A simple, normal phase HPTLC method was also developed for the quantification of three bioactive compounds i.e N-formylannonain (1), 11-hydroxymustakone (5) and yangambin (8) in the stem of Tinospora cordifolia hosted on fifteen different plants.
RESULTS: Chromatographic purification of different fractions led to the isolation of eight pure molecules i.e N-formylannonain (1), magnoflorine (2), jatrorrhizine (3) palmatine (4), 11-hydroxymustakone (5), cordifolioside A (6), tinocordiside (7) and yangambin (8). All extracts and fractions were active against KB and CHOK-1 cells whereas among the pure molecules palmatine (4) was found to be active against KB and HT-29; tinocordiside (7) against KB and CHOK-1; yangambin (8) against KB cells however N-formylannonain (1) and 11-hydroxymustakone (5), was found active for immunomodulatory activity. HPTLC quantification of three active molecules i.e N-formylannonain (1), 11-hydroxymustakone (5), and yangambin (8) were found in highest quantity in the stem of Tinospora cordifolia hosted on Mangifera indica, however, other two active molecules were not quantified due to their insufficient quantity.
CONCLUSION: Eight compounds have been isolated and characterized belonging to different classes. The pharmacological evaluation of extract, fractions and pure molecules revealed the ethnomedicinal value of Tinospora cordifolia for anticancer and immunomodulatory activities.