Selenium-enriched Spirulina protects INS-1E pancreatic beta cells from human islet amyloid polypeptide-induced apoptosis through suppression of ROS-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction and PI3/AKT pathway.
Eur J Nutr. 2015 Jun ;54(4):509-22. Epub 2014 Aug 12. PMID: 25112514
PURPOSE: Human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) aggregation is linked to loss of pancreatic beta cells in type 2 diabetes, in part due to oxidative stress. Currently, little is known about the effects of selenium-enriched Spirulina on beta cells with the presence of hIAPP. In this study, INS-1E rat insulinoma cells were used as a model to evaluate in vitro protective effects of Se-enriched Spirulina extract (Se-SE) against hIAPP-induced cell death, as well as the underlying mechanisms.
METHODS: Flow cytometric analysis was used to evaluate cell apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and ROS generation. Caspase activity was measured using a fluorometric method. Western blotting was applied to detect protein expression.
RESULTS: Our results showed that exposure of INS-1E cells to hIAPP resulted in cell viability loss, LDH release and appearance of sub-G peak. However, cytotoxicity of hIAPP was significantly attenuated by co-treatment with Se-SE. Se-SE also inhibited hIAPP-induced activation of caspase-3, -8 and -9. Additionally, hIAPP-induced accumulation of ROS and superoxide was suppressed by co-treatment with Se-SE. Moreover, Se-SE was able to prevent hIAPP-induced depletion ofΔΨm and intracellular ATP, reduction in mitochondrial mass, changes in the expression of Bcl-2 family members, release of mitochondrial apoptogenic factors. Furthermore, hIAPP-mediated AKT inhibition was restored by co-treatment with Se-SE.
CONCLUSION: Our results showed that Se-SE protects INS-1E cells from hIAPP-induced cell death through preventing ROS overproduction, mitochondrial dysfunction and modulating PI3K/AKT pathway.