Does prostate volume correlate with vitamin D deficiency among men undergoing prostate biopsy?
Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2016 Oct 11. Epub 2016 Aug 11. PMID: 27725729
A B Murphy
OBJECTIVES: Recent studies demonstrate vitamin D is inversely correlated with BPH and prostate cancer (PCa) incidence. We aim to clarify the associations of vitamin D with prostate volume.
METHODS: This is an observational study investigating the associations of serum PSA, PSA density and prostate volume with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH D) in PCa patients and men with negative biopsies seen in outpatient urology clinics in Chicago, IL, USA. There were 571 men (40-79 years old) with elevated PSA or abnormal digital rectal examination with available prostate volume recorded from initial biopsy. The primary outcomes were the unadjusted associations of serum 25-OH D deficiency with prostate volume. The secondary outcomes were the adjusted associations using linear and logistic regression analysis.
RESULTS: On univariate analysis, serum 25-OH D<20 ng ml(-1) inversely correlated with prostate volume among all men undergoing transrectal ultrasonography (P=0.02), and this relationship remained significant for men with negative biopsy on stratified analysis. In adjusted models, controlling for age, serum PSA, 5-α reductase inhibitors use, obesity and PCa diagnosis, prostate volume was inversely associated with vitamin D (P<0.05) using serum vitamin D as a continuous and categorical variable. Logistic regression model also demonstrated an inverse association between vitamin D (continuous and categorical) and prostate volume⩾40 grams.
CONCLUSION: Serum 25-OH D levels are inversely associated with overall prostate volume and enlarged prostate gland (⩾40 grams), especially in men with benign prostatic disease. Given the largely non-toxic effect of supplementation, consideration should be given to assessing vitamin D levels in men with benign prostatic disease in addition, to malignant prostatic disease.Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseasesadvance online publication, 11 October 2016; doi:10.1038/pcan.2016.41.