Sesquiterpene rich essential oil from Nepalese Bael tree (Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa) as potential antiproliferative agent.
Fitoterapia. 2019 Jul 11:104266. Epub 2019 Jul 11. PMID: 31302251
Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. (Rutaceae), also known as Bael tree, is an herbal traditional remedy in the South East Asia. In the present work, the leaf essential oil distilled from a population collected in Nepal was analyzed for the chemical composition by GC-MS showing different phytochemical constituents compared with literature data. The obtained oil was rich in sesquiterpenes, mainlyβ-Caryophyllene (26%), whereas monoterpenes, known in literature as the major components, were present in little amounts. Due to richness in sesquiterpenes which are promising as anticancer drugs, the oil was tested against several human tumor cell lines namely pancreatic (PSN-1), colon (LoVo), lung (H157) and ovarian (2008) cells showing ICof 5.6 μg/ml, 6.5 μg/ml, 6.7 μg/ml and 2.3 μg/ml, respectively. In vivo distribution of oil was studied with a dose of 41.5 mg/kg in mice allowing the quantification of β-Caryophyllene, α-Humulene, γ-Muurulene and ar-Curcumene at 30 and 60 min after oral administration. Sesquiterpene were found in higer amount in, liver, kidney and heart whereas lung and blood contained lower levels. The tissue distribution study demonstrated that active sesquiterpenoids of the oil can efficiently reach different organs.