Severe vitamin D deficiency in the first trimester is associated with placental inflammation in high-risk singleton pregnancy.
Clin Nutr. 2018 Jul 9. Epub 2018 Jul 9. PMID: 30031659
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy is a worldwide epidemic. This study aimed to identify whether vitamin D deficiency in early pregnancy is associated with placental inflammation in high-risk pregnancy.
METHODS: This study comprised 23,396 women who provided serum samples in the first trimester for vitamin D analysis from January 2015 to December 2016. Among them, 2648 women with high-risk pregnancy underwent placental pathologic examination. Women were divided into placental inflammation positive (PIP) and placental inflammation negative (PIN) groups based on placental pathology. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationship between vitamin D levels and placental inflammation.
RESULTS: We found that severe vitamin D deficiency in early pregnancy was associated with placental inflammation. Maternal vitamin D levels were significantly lower in the PIP group than those in the PIN group (P = 0.025). Compared with the highest quartile of vitamin D levels, risk for placental inflammation was significantly higher in women with extremely low vitamin D levels (<5th percentile; P = 0.012). The effect estimate was slightly decreased but still significant (P = 0.027) after adjusting for maternal age, gestational age at birth, birth weight, infant sex, and sample collection season. In addition, compared with the PIN group, the incidences of adverse neonatal outcomes, including sepsis (0.5% vs 2.4%) and fetal intrauterine infection (5.7% vs 15.6%), were significantly higher in the PIP group than that in the PIN group (P < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Severe vitamin D deficiency in the first trimester is a risk factor for placental inflammation in high-risk pregnancy.