Characterization and Antiproliferative Effect of Novel Acid Polysaccharides from the Spent Substrate of Shiitake Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom Lentinus edodes (Agaricomycetes) Cultivation.
Int J Med Mushrooms. 2017 ;19(5):395-403. PMID: 28845769
In this study, a high yield of crude polysaccharide (16.73± 0.756%) was extracted from the spent mushroom substrate of Lentinus edodes using a hot alkali extraction method. Two groups of polysaccharides (designated as LSMS-1 and LSMS-2) were obtained from the crude extract by size exclusion chromatography (SEC), and their molecular characteristics were examined by a multiangle laser-light scattering (MALLS) and refractive index detector system. The weight-average molar masses of LSMS-1 and LSMS-2 were determined to be 6.842 × 106 and 2.154 × 106 g/mol, respectively. The SEC/MALLS analysis revealed that the molecular shapes of LSMS-1 and LSMS-2 were sphere-like forms in aqueous solution. Carbohydrate composition analysis using chromatography--mass spectrometry revealed that they were both acid heteropolysaccharides. LSMS-1 comprised mainly glucose and galacturonic acid, whereas LSMS-2 mainly consisted of xylose and glucuronic acid. Fourier transform infrared spectral analysis of the purified fractions revealed typical characteristic polysaccharide groups. In addition, MTT assays with refined polysaccharide doses of 25, 50, 100, 200, and 400 µg/mL suggested that both of the polysaccharide fractions exhibited antiproliferative activity against 6 tested human tumor cell lines in a concentration-dependent manner, and LSMS-2 had better anticancer capacity in vitro than LSMS-1. The inhibition ratio of LSMS-2 against A549 human lung cancer cells, the SGC7901 gastric cancer cell line, MCF-7 breast cancer cells, the U937 histiocytic lymphoma cell line, and the MG-63 human osteosarcoma cell line reached 43.55%, 29.97%, 19.63%, 18.24%, and 17.93%, respectively, at a concentration of 400 µg/mL.