Dual treatment with shikonin and temozolomide reduces glioblastoma tumor growth, migration and glial-to-mesenchymal transition.
Cell Oncol (Dordr). 2017 Apr 11. Epub 2017 Apr 11. PMID: 28401486
PURPOSE: Glioblastomas (GBM) comprise 17% of all primary brain tumors. These tumors are extremely aggressive due to their infiltrative capacity and chemoresistance, with glial-to-mesenchymal transition (GMT) proteins playing a prominent role in tumor invasion. One compound that has recently been used to reduce the expression of these proteins is shikonin (SHK), a naphthoquinone with anti-tumor properties. Temozolomide (TMZ), the most commonly used chemotherapeutic agent in GBM treatment, has so far not been studied in combination with SHK. Here, we investigated the combined effects of these two drugs on the proliferation and motility of GBM-derived cells.
METHODS: The cytotoxic and proliferative effects of SHK and TMZ on human GBM-derived cells were tested using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT), Ki67 staining and BrdU incorporation assays. The migration capacities of these cells were evaluated using a scratch wound assay. The expression levels ofβ3 integrin, metalloproteinases (MMPs) and GMT-associated proteins were determined by Western blotting and immunocytochemistry.
RESULTS: We found that GBM-derived cells treated with a combination of SHK and TMZ showed decreases in their proliferation and migration capacities. These decreases were followed by the suppression of GMT through a reduction ofβ3 integrin, MMP-2, MMP-9, Slug and vimentin expression via inactivation of PI3K/AKT signaling.
CONCLUSION: From our results we conclude that dual treatment with SHK and TMZ may constitute a powerful new tool for GBM treatment by reducing therapy resistance and tumor recurrence.