Shikonin inhibits migration and invasion of thyroid cancer cells. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Shikonin Inhibites Migration and Invasion of Thyroid Cancer Cells by Downregulating DNMT1.
Med Sci Monit. 2018 Feb 1 ;24:661-670. Epub 2018 Feb 1. PMID: 29389913
BACKGROUND Shikonin is a component of Chinese herbal medicine. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of shikonin on cell migration of papillary thyroid cancer cells of the TPC-1 cell line in vitro and expression levels of the phosphate and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) and DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) genes. MATERIAL AND METHODS The Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay was performed to evaluate the proliferation of TPC-1 papillary thyroid cancer cells, and the normal thyroid cells, HTori-3, in vitro. A transwell motility assay was used to analyze the migration of TPC-1 cells. Western blot was performed to determine the expression levels of PTEN and DNMT1 genes. A methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (MSP) assay was used to evaluate the methylation of PTEN. RESULTS Following treatment with shikonin, the cell survival rate of TPC-1 cells decreased in a dose-dependent manner; the inhibitory effects on HTori-3 cells were less marked. Shikonin inhibited TPC-1 cell migration and invasion in a dose-dependent manner. The methylation of PTEN was suppressed by shikonin, which also reduced the expression of DNMT1 in a dose-dependent manner, and increased the expression of PTEN. Overexpression of DNMT1 promoted the migration of TPC-1 cells and the methylation of PTEN. Levels of protein expression of PTEN in TPC-1 cells treated with shikonin decreased, and were increased by DNMT1 knockdown. CONCLUSIONS Shikonin suppressed the expression of DNMT1, reduced PTEN gene methylation, and increased PTEN protein expression, leading to the inhibition of TPC-1 cell migration.