Effect of short-term hazelnut consumption on DNA damage and oxidized LDL in children and adolescents with primary hyperlipidemia: a randomized controlled trial.
J Nutr Biochem. 2018 Mar 20 ;57:206-211. Epub 2018 Mar 20. PMID: 29753234
Children with primary hyperlipidemia are prone to develop premature atherosclerosis, possibly associated with increased oxidative stress. Nutritional therapy is the primary strategy in the treatment of hyperlipidemia and associated conditions. Dietary interventions with bioactive-rich foods, such as nuts, may contribute to the modulation of both lipid profile and the oxidative/antioxidant status. Our study aimed to assess the impact of a dietary intervention with hazelnuts on selected oxidative stress markers in children and adolescents with primary hyperlipidemia. A single-blind, 8-week, randomized, controlled, three-arm, parallel-group study was performed. Children and adolescents diagnosed with primary hyperlipidemia (n=60) received dietary guidelines and were randomized into three groups: group 1 received hazelnuts with skin (HZN+S), and group 2 hazelnuts without skin (HZN-S), at equivalent doses (15-30 g/day, based on body weight); group 3 (controls) received only dietary recommendations (no nuts). At baseline and after 8 weeks, plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) concentrations, oxidative levels of DNA damage in PBMCs and potential correlation with changes in serum lipids were examined. A reduction of endogenous DNA damage by 18.9%±51.3% (P=.002) and 23.1%±47.9% (P=.007) was observed after HZN+S and HZN-S, respectively. Oxidatively induced DNA strand breaks decreased by 16.0%±38.2% (P=.02) following HZN+S treatment. Ox-LDL levels did not change after HZN+S intervention but positively correlated with total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. A short-term hazelnut intervention improves cell DNA protection and resistance against oxidative stress but not ox-LDL in hyperlipidemic pediatric patients. The trial was registered at ISRCTN.com, ID no. ISRCTN12261900.