Serum Soluble Interleukin-2 Receptor, Interleukin-6 and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha as Markers of Celiac Disease Activity.
Indian J Pediatr. 2012 Jul 6. Epub 2012 Jul 6. PMID: 22766904
Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Department of Pediatrics, Kalawati Saran Children's Hospital, Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi, India, email@example.com.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the markers of lymphocyte activation (sIL-2R, IL-6 and TNFα) in the peripheral blood of newly diagnosed patients with celiac disease (CD) and patients with CD on Gluten free diet (GFD) for at least 2 y. The markers were correlated with conventional serological tests Anti-tissue transglutaminase (Anti-TTG) used for diagnosis and follow up of the disease;wherever possible. METHODS: Thirty newly diagnosed cases of CD (on the basis of histopathology and serology) not on GFD were enrolled as Group 1 of the study. Thirty age and sex matched controls from the Pediatric Surgery OPD formed Group 2. Thirty cases of CD on GFD for at least 2 y (Group 3) werealso enrolled in the study. Upper G.I. endoscopy was performed in all Group 1 patients and cytokine levels assayed by ELISA on serum obtained from all patients in Groups 1, 2, 3. RESULTS: Mean sIL-2R level in Group 1(1498.1+/-1234.31 pg/ml) and Group 3 (488.78+/-396.18 pg/ml) were significantly higher than the controls (336.27+/-218.67 pg/ml p < 0.05). Among the patients with CD, mean serum levels in Group 1 were higher than in Group 3 (p < 0.05). sIL-2R levels showed good correlation with tTg levels in Group 1 patients (p < 0.000, r = 0.69). Mean IL-6 levels in Group 1 were significantly higher (28.43+/-28.32 pg/ml) than Group 2(15.03+/-7.72 pg/ml p < 0.05) and Group 3(11.26+/-5.13 pg/ml p < 0.05). IL-6 levels were comparable between Groups 2 and 3 (p > 0.05).IL-6 levels showed good correlation with tTg levels in Group 1(p < 0.008, r = 0.471). Mean TNFα levels in Group 1(179.66+/-102.93 pg/ml), Group 2 (153.16+/-27.02 pg/ml) and Group 3 (166.67+/-28.95 pg/ml) were comparable (p > 0.05). TNFα levels showed poor correlation with tTg levels in Group 1 patients (p > 0.604, r = -0.099). CONCLUSIONS: sIL-2R and IL-6 levels have a good correlation with CD activity and can be used as reliable markers for detecting minimal transgression from GFD.