In silico characterisation of olive phenolic compounds as potential cyclooxygenase modulators. Part 2.
J Mol Graph Model. 2020 Sep 3 ;101:107743. Epub 2020 Sep 3. PMID: 32920237
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly used to reduce pain, and function by targeting cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes to inhibit the production of prostaglandins that facilitate inflammation. Since oleocanthal derived from Olea europaea is known to inhibit COX, we sought to characterise novel olive compounds with COX inhibitory activity using in silico techniques. Following on from part 1 of this study which identified 1-oleyltyrosol (1OL) and ligstroside derivative 2 (LG2) with COX inhibitory potential, the mechanisms of COX interactions by these selected compounds were further examined using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Classical MD simulations were carried out on COX-1 and COX-2 complexed with 1OL and LG2 to determine the stability and protein backbone fluctuation. Protein dynamics were examined using essential dynamics methods and network analysis, which identified that the N-terminal epidermal growth factor-like domain and membrane bound domains of COX-1 and -2 exhibited altered motions when ligands were bound. Distinct dynamical modules were identified, and that COX-2 inter-residue communications were more sensitive to ligand binding compared to COX-1. The use of various network metrics presents a novel approach in the characterisation of network behaviour of different ligands. It is proposed that inter-residue network metrics provide additional measures of the potential bioactivity of ligands, which may form a useful adjunct to conventional direct predictions of binding affinity, in determining the efficacy of potential small-molecule inhibitors. Overall, this two-part study characterises anti-inflammatory effects of low dosage dietary COX inhibitors, and provides a possible avenue for the development of therapeutics in inflammatory diseases.